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Military Articles

Post by durante on Mon Apr 20, 2009 12:10 pm

Close Quarters Battle




Close Quarters Battle (CQB) or close
quarters combat
(CQC) is a type of fighting in which small units
engage the enemy with personal weapons at very short range, even to the point
of hand-to-hand combat. In the typical CQB
scenario, the attackers try a very fast, violent takeover of a vehicle or
structure controlled by the defenders, who usually have no easy way to
withdraw. Because enemies, hostages/civilians, and fellow operators can be
closely intermingled, CQB demands a rapid assault and a precise application of
lethal force. The operators need great proficiency with their weapons, but also
the ability to make split-second decisions in order to limit friendly
casualties.


Criminals sometimes use CQB techniques, such as
in an armed
robbery or jailbreak, but most of the terminology comes from training
used to prepare soldiers, police, and other authorities. Therefore, much CQB
material is written from the perspective of the "good guys" who must
break into the stronghold where the "bad guys" have barricaded
themselves.


Although there is considerable overlap, CQB is
not synonymous with urban warfare, now sometimes known by the military
acronyms MOUT (military operations on urban terrain),FIBUA (fighting in
built-up areas) or OBUA (Operations in Built Up Areas) in the West. Urban
warfare is a much larger field, including logistics and the role of crew-served
weapons like heavy machine guns, mortars,
and mounted grenade launchers, as well as armor and air
support. In CQB, the emphasis is on small infantry units using light, compact
weapons that one man can carry and use easily in tight spaces, such as submachine
guns, shotguns,
pistols and
even knives.

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Mon Apr 20, 2009 12:12 pm


//
[edit] Principles of assault




[edit] Detailed planning




Ideally, the leader of the assault team gathers
all available intelligence about the crisis
scene, targets, and innocents. He diagrams and discusses the proposed plan,
outlining each team’s actions and responsibilities, location, fields of fire,
and special tasks (even to the point of a wall-by-wall and door-by-door layout
of the objective, where available). Since the assault team usually already has
specialized training, the operation is based on well-understood,
pre-established standing operating procedure. When considerable preparation
time is available, the team sometimes conducts step-by-step walk-through
exercises on a mock-up that duplicates the target environment. Some units
maintain permanent "shoot houses" or even airliner/ship mock-ups for
practicing marksmanship and tactics more realistically.


In a prolonged standoff, the attackers can
sometimes bring in specialized equipment for probing the inside of a
well-defended area. Sensitive thermal cameras can help locate the occupants,
and surveillance personnel can run microphones and fiber-optic
cameras through walls, ceilings, and floors. The "throw phones"
used to establish contact between authorities and suspects often contain hidden
cameras or infrared illuminators for added intelligence-gathering. If hostages
escape or can communicate/signal the attackers, they can provide more
information from inside.


However, the time and resources to carry out such
luxurious preparations are not always there. Not every attacker can field an
overwhelming force of specially trained and equipped men with reinforcements
standing by. Information about the inside of an enemy-held building or vehicle
may not be accessible beyond studying it through binoculars or a riflescope.
While some attackers can go to the lengths of wearing the enemy down by siege
or even tunneling under them, others must
get the current job done immediately with the force available in order to move
on to the next.

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Mon Apr 20, 2009 12:13 pm


[edit] Surprise




Military team conducting a
stealthy approach to the target CQB training.


The objective is to complete all offensive action
before the party being engaged is able to react. To gain this element of
surprise, the entry teams use stealth movement and noise/light discipline to
get as close to the targets as possible, hopefully putting themselves in a
position to engage an enemy from the moment he becomes aware of them. Some
teams use subsonic sniper rifles for their initial shots on sentries or
dogs.


An assault should come at a time when least
expected, taking into consideration fatigue, normal sleep periods, and other
factors that detract from the target's alertness. Diversions are an essential
element in achieving surprise. Staged emergencies, such as a mock auto
accident, fire, or explosion near the crisis site, can divert the target's
attention away from the assaulting elements. Explosive breaching and
diversionary devices, such as flash bang, smoke, or gas grenades can be
employed to distract and disorient the targets. Negotiators can try to
manipulate the defenders into a more vulnerable position or convince them that
their position will not be stormed.

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Re: Military Articles

Post by black. on Mon Apr 20, 2009 1:11 pm

ga da gbrnya om??

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Mon Apr 20, 2009 5:56 pm

Skenario ini sangat cocok dipake untuk perang woodland.

Udah beberapa bulan terakhir ini setiap
skirmish selaluuuuuuu aja ditutup dengan skenario asyik. Skenario asyik
yang saya sebut tadi itu skenario penyelamatan sebuah grup. Skenario
ini terinspirasi dari tulisan seorang kawan via sebuah forum (sayang
forumnya sedang down-thanx to kang Yoga alias Airborne82nd). Skenario ini sangat cocok dipake untuk perang woodland.
Jadi, semua pemain kita bagi jadi 3 grup.
Grup pertama, adalah grup pasukan yang akan diselamatkan. Jumlahnya
lebih dari 1/3 pemain yang ada. Grup ini dilengkapi dengan selembar
bendera yang diikatkan pada bambu/kayu.
Grup kedua, adalah grup gerilyawan yang bertugas memburu &
mengeliminasi seluruh personil grup pertama. Jumlahnya 1/3 dari pemain.
Grup ketiga, adalah grup pasukan penyelamat yang bertugas menyelamatkan grup pertama. Grup ini bawa bendera juga.
Nah, pembagian sudah beres, sekarang kita bahas flownya…
Sebelum dimulai tolong siapkan dulu stopwatch (kalo ada radio HT jauh lebih bagus).
Grup pertama silakan bergerak terlebih dahulu. Misi utamanya adalah
mencari lokasi yang strategis, aman & efektif digunakan untuk
bersembunyi & membuat pertahanan apabila diserang. Tancapkan
bendera pada posisi yang terbuka/terlihat. Aktifkan radio. Bersiap
untuk diselamatkan oleh grup ketiga.
Setelah 15 menit (waktu bisa disesuaikan dengan luas area &
jumlah pemain) grup kedua dipersilakan berangkat. Grup kedua bertugas
mengeliminasi grup pertama atau bisa juga merebut benderanya.
Lalu 15 menit setelah keberangkatan grup kedua, grup ketiga silakan
berangkat. Misi utamanya adalah menyelamatkan grup pertama. Gimana
caranya? Caranya, setelah berhasil menemukan posisi grup pertama lalu
buat perimeter & ikatkan dua buah bendera ini jadi satu (teknisnya
silakan dipikirkan). Lalu aktifkan stopwatch (atau bisa juga ditambah
dengan kode yang diteriakkan), hitung sampai 15 menit! Selama itu
silakan bertahan dari gempuran grup kedua. Jika waktu habis maka grup
pertama & ketiga berhasil menuntaskan misi.
Grup kedua (gerilyawan) dinyatakan menang jika :
berhasil mengeliminasi seluruh personil grup pertama
atau
berhasil melumpuhkan seluruh personil grup pertama & ketiga dalam range 15 menit ketika dua bendera berhasil disatukan.
Oke, selamat menunaikan skenario…serius, asyik banget main skenario ini

~ by Danar on January 7, 2009.

Posted in Skenario
Tags: skirmish, Skenario, gerilyawan

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Re: Military Articles

Post by black. on Mon Apr 20, 2009 6:02 pm

om penjelasan yg pake bhs inggris diterjemahin dunk...sayang kan kalo ga ngerti, ane aja ga ngerti, kan ane lahir di jerman..gede di ceko, baru deh di indo skrg, jadi ga ngerti england england getho

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Mon Apr 20, 2009 6:19 pm

Yang jujur aja sih sebenarnya ane jg ngga ngerti. Hehehehe. Razz Wakakaka. Cuma sok tau trus gw posting aja.

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Re: Military Articles

Post by raden_arrez on Mon Apr 20, 2009 8:56 pm

please deh ah...kan ada transtool bajakan hehehehe

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Re: Military Articles

Post by black. on Tue Apr 21, 2009 8:43 am

bapak2 parah ni semua......

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Re: Military Articles

Post by raden_arrez on Tue Apr 21, 2009 2:38 pm

keep on posting bro Durante...

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Wed Apr 22, 2009 4:18 pm

Infantery Soldier

merupakan pasukan tempur darat utama yaitu
pasukan berjalan kaki yang dilengkapi persenjataan ringan, dilatih dan
disiapkan untuk melaksanakan pertempuran jarak dekat. Infanteri berasal
dari kata infant yang berarti kaki, biasanya untuk menggambarkan para
tentara muda yang berjalan kaki disekeliling para ksatria yang
menunggang kuda atau kereta. Oleh karena itu seorang infanteri harus
memiliki kemampuan berkelahi, menembak, dan bertempur dalam segala
medan dan cuaca. Pasukan infanteri modern dapat diangkut ke daerah
pertempuran dengan pesawat terbang, kapal/perahu, truk, kendaraan lapis
baja, atau helikopter.

Sebagian infanteri kini merupakan bagian organik dari kesatuan lapis
baja atau kesatuan mobil udara. Namun, apabila terlibat dalam
pertempuran baik dalam keadaan menyerang maupun bertahan, mereka
bertempur di luar kendaraan sebagai pasukan berjalan kaki.

Sasaran atau wilayah belum dapat dikatakan berhasil direbut sebelum
diduduki dan dikuasai satuan Infanteri. Lalu, muncul sebutan infanteri
adalah "Queen of the Battle" (ratu dari pertempuran)

Walaupun Indonesia adalah negara kepulauan ,sebagian besar tentara
Indonesia terdiri dari pasukan infanteri, hal ini terjadi karena
pengadaan pasukan infanteri adalah hal yang paling mudah dan murah.
Infanteri adalah korps yang terbesar dan menjadi tulang punggung di
jajaran TNI-AD. TNI AD Memiliki tak kurang dari 89 Batalyon Infanteri
atau sering juga disebut Yonif. Setiap tanggal 15 Desember dalam
lingkungan TNI-AD diadakan peringatan Hari Juang Kartika TNI-AD atau
dulu biasa disebut sebagai hari Infanteri TNI-AD.

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Wed Apr 22, 2009 5:59 pm

Tactical flanking


The flanking maneuver is a basic military tactic,
with several variations. Flanking an enemy often refers to staying back
and not risking yourself, while at the same time gradually weakening
enemy forces. Of course, it may not always work (especially if
outnumbered), but for the most part can prove to be very useful as well
as effective.
One type is employed in an ambush,
where a friendly unit performs a surprise attack from a concealed
position. Other units may be hidden to the sides of the ambush site to
surround the enemy, but care must be taken in setting up fields of fire to avoid friendly fire.
Another type is used in the attack, where a unit encounters an enemy
defensive position. Upon receiving fire from the enemy, the unit
commander may decide to order a flank attack. A part of the attacking
unit "fixes" the enemy with suppressive fire,
preventing them from returning fire, retreating or changing position to
meet the flank attack. The flanking force then advances to the enemy
flank and attacks them at close range. Coordination to avoid friendly
fire is also important in this situation.
The most effective form of flanking maneuver is the double envelopment, which involves simultaneous flank attacks on both sides of the enemy. A classic example is Hannibal's victory over the Roman armies at the Battle of Cannae. Another example of the double envelopment is Khalid ibn al-Walid's victory over the Persian Empire at the Battle of Walaja.[1]
Despite primarily being associated with land warfare, flanking maneuvers have also used to great effect in naval battles.[2] A famous example of this is the Battle of Salamis, where the combined naval forces of the Greek city-states managed to outflank the Persian navy and won a decisive victory.

[edit] Flanking in history


Flanking maneuvers played an important role in nearly every major
battle in history, and have been used effectively by famous military
leaders like Hannibal, Julius Caesar, Khalid ibn al-Walid[1], Napoleon and Stonewall Jackson throughout history. Sun Tzu's The Art of War
strongly emphasizes the use of flanking, although it does not advocate
completely surrounding the enemy force as this may induce it to fight
with greater ferocity if it cannot escape [3].
A flanking maneuver is not always effective, as the flanking force
may itself be ambushed while maneuvering, or the main force is unable
to pin the defenders in place, allowing them to turn and face the
flanking attack.

[edit] Maneuvering


Flanking on land in the pre-modern era was usually achieved with cavalry (and rarely, chariots) due to their speed and maneuverability, while heavily-armored infantry was commonly used to fix the enemy, as in the Battle of Pharsalus. Armored vehicles such as tanks replaced cavalry as the main force of flanking maneuvers in the 20th century, as seen in the Battle of France in World War II.

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Re: Military Articles

Post by raden_arrez on Thu Apr 23, 2009 12:48 pm

nice posting...semoga bermanfaat

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Fri Apr 24, 2009 2:03 pm

Cerita yang akan saya posting melihat dari sisi lain pertempuran 10
Nopember 1945. Sumber cerita berasal dari bapak kos saya yang dalam
perang 10 Nopember 1945 adalah salah seorang tokoh pasukan TRIP. Sumber
cerita juga berasal dari cerita-cerita yang hidup di kampung-kampung di
Surabaya. Pada saat malam 10 Nopember atau 17 Agustus, biasanya
cerita-cerita pertempuran 10 Nopember diingatkan dan disegarkan
kembali. Saya sering gabung dengan warga kampung untuk mendengarkan
cerita mereka karena saya sangat respek dengan kepahlawanan arek-arek
Suroboyo.


Jika anggota formil punya cerita lain yang menarik mengenai pertempuran 10 Nopember 1945, silahkan ditambahkan.


Semoga berkenan.

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Fri Apr 24, 2009 2:04 pm

10 Nopember 1945 pagi. Inggris benar-benar melaksanakan ultimatum
mereka. Seluruh kekuatan militer yang ada di Surabaya dan Selat Madura
mereka kerahkan untuk membom habis-habisan Surabaya, dari darat, laut
dan udara.

Kapal perang Inggris dari Selat Madura
terus-menerus memuntahkan bom-bom maut ke arah daerah pertahanan
Arek-arek Suroboroyo. Di darat tank-tank Inggris mencoba merangsek
garis pertahanan Arek-arek Suroboyo, yang ternyata tidak semudah
dibayangkan Jenderal Mansregh karena mendapat perlawanan sengit.
Sementara dari udara, pesawat tempur Inggris dengan leluasa menembaki
dan membom pertahanan Arek-arek Suroboyo yang relatif terbuka tanpa
”payung” pertahanan udara yang berarti.

Berkat teknologi perang
Inggris canggih saat itu, bom-bom Inggris yang dimuntahkan dari kapal
perang berjatuhan menghajar hingga jauh ke bagian Selatan Surabaya
seperti kawasan Darmo, yang terletak belasan kilometer jauhnya dari
Selat Madura. Arek-arek Suroboyo yang berada di daerah tersebut cuma
bisa misuh-misuh (memaki-maki) karena terus menerus dihujani bom
Inggris tanpa bisa membalas sama sekali karena umumnya mereka hanya
memiliki senjata untuk pertempuran jarak dekat seperti bedil rampasan,
mortir, clurit, pedang....dll

Seorang Arek Suroboyo umur belasan
tahun beringsut mendekat kepada senior mereka. Ditengah riuh rendah
suara ledakan bom Inggris, dia bertanya: ”Pak Lek ! Pundhi Londone ?!”
(Paman, mana orang Inggrisnya ?.Saat itu lumrah jika menyebut Inggris
dengan Londo, karena sama-sama kulit putih, dan sama-sama hendak
merampas kemerdekaan)

”Opok’o ?” (kenapa?) balik si pejuang senior bertanya

”Wonge
gak kethok, bome wis tekan mrene !” (Orangnya tidak kelihatan, bomnya
sudah sampe sini !”). ”Wis gak sabar pingin gelut ambek Londo ! Mboh
aku sing mati, opo Londo gendheng sing mati !” (sudah tidak sabar saya
ingin berkelahi dengan orang Inggris, entah saya yang mati, atau
Inggris gila yang mati !”)

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Fri Apr 24, 2009 2:08 pm

Pada saat menjelang atau awal pertempuran 10 Nopember, sebagian pasukan
TRIP memperoleh celana seragam berwarna khaki (kayak kopi susu muda
gitu). Bagi para anggota TRIP yang masih muda-muda, celana itu
merupakan kebanggaan, dan sekaligus merupakan celana andalan, karena
jarang yang punya ganti. Maklum situasi ekonomi sulit.Kalau pun dicuci
(ini sangat jarang dilakukan), terpaksa nunggu kering untuk dapat
dipakai lagi…..

Karena gencarnya pertempuran, celana itu jarang
di cuci. Bagaimana sempat nyuci celana, lha wong Sekutu tiada henti
membomi Surabaya. Belum lagi celana itu sangat sering dipakai untuk
tiarap atau merayap di tanah saat bertempur. Maka secara evolusi, warna
celana itu pun berubah. Kalau semula berwarna khaki lambat laun warna
celana itu menjadi kehitaman. Apalagi banyak diantaranya yang coba-coba
melakukan trik “ajaib” dengan secara sengaja membenamkan di lumpur
sungai, biar lebih awet katanya. Entahlah, dari mana ide konyol
membenamkan celana di lumpur sungai berasal. Tapi tidak sedikit yang
mengikutinya.

Itulah yang bisa disediakan oleh Republik saat itu bagi para pejuangnya....

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Fri Apr 24, 2009 2:18 pm

Sebelum pecah pertempuran 10 Nopember 1945,
sebagian besar pejuang dalam perang Surabaya adalah masyarakat sipil
biasa, yang sebelumnya mungkin hanyalah tukang jual soto, pedagang di
pasar, penarik becak atau dokar, atau pelajar seperti yang tergabung
dalam TRIP. Pokoknya semua yang merasa kuat menenteng senjata, maju
menantang pasukan Inggris yang baru saja menang Perang Dunia ke-2,
termasuk pasukan Gurkha yang katanya hebat dalam bertempur.
Satu-satunya unit bersenjata yang terlatih dan memiliki persenjataan
yang cukup lengkap hanyalah Polisi Istimewa (PI)

Asal-usul
mereka juga macem-macem, hampir segala suku di Indonesia terwakili:
Jawa, Madura, Ambon, Batak, Manado, Bali, pokoknya macam-macam suku
yang saat itu tinggal di Surabaya. Belum lagi laskar-laskar yang
berasal dari beberapa daerah di Jawa Timur sendiri yang mengalir masuk
ke Surabaya untuk memberikan dukungan. Kesemuanya memiliki satu tekad
yang sama: lawan Inggris ! sebagai perwujudan kongkrit apa yang
disampaikan secara bergelora oleh Bung Tomo dalam pidatonya.:
“...Selama banteng-banteng Indonesia masih mempoenjai darah merah jang
dapat membikin setjarik kain poetih mendjadi merah & putih,maka
selama itoe tidak akan kita maoe menjerah kepada siapapoen djuga!”
Hanya ibu-ibu, orang tua dan anak-anak yang diungsikan ke luar
Surabaya. Sisanya ya..itu tadi, meleburkan diri dalam pelbagai kelompok
perlawanan rakyat.

Keadaanlah yang memaksa mereka untuk segera
menyesuaikan diri, belajar bertempur sebisa mereka, dengan senjata apa
saja yang mereka miliki (termasuk mungkin pedang dan keris warisan
kakek buyut mereka). Semuanya bondo nekad (bonek. Eh,jangan samakan
mereka dengan bonek supporter Persebaya ya?) karena tidak sudi tanah
tercinta diinjak-injak penjajah, seberapa pun kuat militer mereka.
Akibat kemampuan teknis tempur mereka pas-pasan, sering terjadi insiden
yang mengenaskan. Misalnya, saat mencoba menembakkan mortir ke arah
Undaan Kulon (nama sebuah tempat di Surabaya), dimana posisi musuh
berada, tembakan arek-arek Suroboyo malah melenceng ke arah Undaan
Wetan dimana sebagian teman perjuangan bertahan !

Namun
seiring berjalannya waktu, arek-arek Suroboyo, para pejuang muda yang
pemberani itu mulai ngerti cara berperang, termasuk mulai bisa
memperkirakan jarak sebuah mortir atau bom yang akan meledak. Jika
terdengar suara bersiutan :”Siuuutttt……” arek-arek Suroboyo masih
bersikap tenang karena itu berarti mortir atau bom masih jauh dari
mereka. Tapi kalau sudah mendengar ”wesz…ewesz….!” rame-rame mereka
segera tiarap atau mencari perlindungan karena itu berarti mortir atau
bom sudah mendekat ke arah mereka.

Boleh juga pembelajaran yang mereka peroleh !

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Wed Apr 29, 2009 4:07 pm

Beginning


On October 27, 1945,
a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya urging all
Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons. The leader of
Indonesian troops and militia was angered, seeing it as a breaking of
the agreement reached with Mallaby earlier. On October 28, 1945, they attacked British troops in Surabaya killing more than 200 ill-prepared British troops. On 30 October, in desperation the British flew Sukarno (president of RI), Mohammad Hatta
(the vice president of RI), and Amir Syarifuddin Harahap (the minister
of information of Indonesia) into the Surabaya. The three were seen as
the only Indonesian leaders likely able to quell fighting between
Republican and British Indian forces in which the British Brigade were
hopelessly outnumbered and facing annihilation. A cease fire was
negotiated with Major General Hawthorn (the commander of 23rd Indian
Division) and Brigadier Mallaby and immediately adhered to. Fighting,
however, soon recommenced after confused communications and mistrust
between the two sides, leading to the famed Battle of Surabaya.[9]

[edit] Death of Brigadier Mallaby



The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby where he was killed in Surabaya on 31 October 1945.

Brigadier Mallaby was killed in Surabaya on 30 October 1945 under unclear circumstances that remain debated today.
Brigadier Mallaby spread the news about the new agreement to his
troops around Surabaya. When his car approached the British troops post
on International building near the Jembatan Merah ("Red
Bridge"), his car was surrounded by Indonesian Republican militia.
Fearing that their commander was about to be attacked by the militia,
the British troops in the International building, led by Major Venu K.
Gopal, fired into the air to disperse the Indonesian militia.[3] The militia, thinking that British were taking hostile action, fired back at the British troops.[3]
Captain R.C. Smith who was in the stationary car reports that a
young republican shot and killed Mallaby after a short conversation.
Smith then reports throwing a grenade from the car in the direction of
where he thought the shooter was hiding. Although he is not sure
whether it hit its target, the explosion caused the back seat of the
car to ignite.[3] Other accounts, according to the same source,[3] stated that it was the explosion and not a shooter that killed Mallaby.
Regardless of its exact details, his death was a significant turning
point for the hostilities in Surabaya, and a catalyst for the battle to
come. The British ordered an Indonesian surrender, and on 10 November they rolled out a large retaliatory attack.[2]


A defiant Bung Tomo in Surabaya,
one of the most revered revolutionary leaders. This famous photo
represents for many who took part, both Dutch and Indonesian, the very
soul of the revolutionary struggle.[7]


Last edited by durante on Wed Apr 29, 2009 4:14 pm; edited 1 time in total

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Wed Apr 29, 2009 4:12 pm

The major battle



Bren gunners of 3/9th Jat Regiment cover the advance of their regiment against Indonesian nationalists in Surabaya.





Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison was angered when he heard
that Brigadier Mallaby was killed in Surabaya. During a lull in
fighting, the British brought in reinforcements and evacuated the
internees.[2] An additional two brigades (9th and 123rd Indian) of 5th Indian Division troops led by Major General Eric Mansergh were deployed with Sherman and Stuart tanks, 2 cruisers and 3 destroyers in support[1]. Among the destroyers was HMS Cavalier, now preserved as a museum ship at Chatham Historic Dockyard.
At dawn on 10 November,
a day now commemorated in Indonesia as Heroes' Day, British troops
began a methodical advance through the city under the cover of naval
and air bombardment. Fighting was heavy with British troops clearing
buildings room by room and consolidating their gains. Despite the
fanatical resistance of Indonesians, half the city was conquered in
three days and the fighting over in three weeks. At least 6,000
Indonesians died and perhaps 200,000 fled the devastated city.[2]. British and Indian casualties totalled approximately 600. [10]

[edit] Consequences of the battle



The Heroes Monument in Surabaya commemorating the fierce battle.





The Republicans lost much of their manpower, but it was the loss of
weaponry that would severely hamper Republican military efforts for the
remainder of the independence struggle.[2]
The battle for Surabaya was the bloodiest single engagement of the war,
and demonstrated the determination of the rag-tag nationalist forces;
their sacrificial resistance became a symbol and rallying-cry for the
Revolution. It also made the British reluctant to be sucked into a war
it did not need, considering how outstretched their resources in
southeast Asia were during the period after the Japanese surrender;
within a few years, in fact, Britain openly supported the Republican
cause in the United Nations. It was also a watershed for the Dutch as
it removed any doubt that the Republic was not simply a gang of
collaborators without popular support.[2]
In November 1946, the last British troops left Indonesia. The "Heroes
of the 10th of November" statue in Surabaya commemorates this battle. 10 November is now commemorated in Indonesia as "Heroes' Day", in memory of the battle.

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Thu May 07, 2009 5:04 pm

Era Blackwater di Irak Tamat


(tulanelink.com)



BAGHDAD -
Tamat sudah riwayat perusahaan penyewaan tentara bayaran Amerika
Serikat (AS), Blackwater, di Irak. Perusahaan lain bakal menggantikan
peran Blackwater yang kerap bermasalah itu, untuk kontrak layanan
keamanan di Baghdad.

Triple Canopy, sebuah perusahaan yang
berbasis di Virginia, AS, menggantikan Blackwater, yang sudah berganti
nama menjadi Xe (dibaca: Zee) beberapa bulan lalu. Departemen Luar
Negeri memutuskan tidak memperpanjang kontrak Blacwater/Xe yang
bermarkas di North Carolina pada Januari lalu.

Dikutip dari CNN,
Kamis (7/5/2009), keputusan Deplu itu merupakan respons atas permintaan
pemerintah Irak untuk memperbarui lisensi operasional perusahaan
tersebut, pascainsiden penembakan terhadap 17 warga sipil Irak oleh
pasukan keamanan asal Blackwater, pada 6 September 2007, di Yarmouk,
Baghdad Barat. Saat itu sebanyak delapan warga sipil tewas, dan 13
lainnya cedera.

Untuk melindungi diplomat AS dan para pekerja
dari berbagai belahan dunia yang ada di Irak, Deplu AS menyewa
Blackwater/Xe untuk tugas beberapa tahun di Irak. Kontrak diperpanjang
setahun sekali. Blackwater/Xe, satu dari tiga firma keamanan yang
bekerja untuk AS, memiliki satu kontrak tersebsar di Irak, yaitu
menyediakan pengamanan bagi Kedutaan Besar AS di Baghdad.

Triple
Canopy sebelumnya telah mengantongi kontrak dari Deplu. Namun kontrak
baru tersebut menambah besarnya tugas pengamanan Triple Canopy. DynCorp
International juga memiliki kontrak dari Deplu AS untuk bekerja di Irak.

Lima
mantan penjaga keamanan Blackwater dinyatakan bersalah pada Januari
lalu, atas kesalahan pembunuhan dan kejahatan serius lainnya, dalam
insiden 6 September 2007 itu.

Pemerintah AS memang menyewa
pasukan bayaran di luar tentara reguler mereka, untuk diterjunkan ke
zona perang di Irak. Blackwater sendiri merupakan perusahaan yang
pernah dipimpin oleh mantan Wakil Presiden AS Dick Cheney. Aroma
persaingan bisnis perang memang sangat kental di balik invasi AS di
Irak.(jri)
Code:

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Re: Military Articles

Post by raden_arrez on Thu May 07, 2009 5:22 pm

oooh...udah ganti nama tho jadi Xe??

nice inpo gan

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Fri May 08, 2009 3:02 pm

The Black Dragon Society (Kyūjitai; 黑龍會; Shinjitai: 黒龍会 ,kokuryūkai?) was a prominent paramilitary, ultra-nationalist right-wing group in Japan.



Ryohei Uchida, founder of the Black Dragon Society





The Kokuryūkai was founded in 1901 by Uchida Ryohei, and was descended from the Genyōsha. (Uchida was a follower of Genyōsha founder Mitsuru Toyama.) Its name is derived from the Amur River, called Heilongjiang or "Black Dragon River" in Chinese (黑龍江?), read as Kokuryū-kō in Japanese. Its public goal was to support efforts to drive the Russian Empire out of east Asia, south of the Amur River.
The Kokuryūkai initially made strenuous efforts to distance itself from the criminal elements of its predecessor, the Genyōsha. As a result, its membership included Cabinet Ministers and high-ranking military officers as well as professional secret agents.
However, as time passed, it found the use of criminal activities to be
a convenient 'means to an end' for many of its operations.
The Society published a journal, and operated an espionage training
school, from which it dispatched agents to gather intelligence on
Russian activities in Russia, Manchuria, Korea and China. It also pressured Japanese politicians to adopt a strong foreign policy. The Kokuryukai also supported Pan-Asianism, and lent financial support to revolutionaries such as Sun Yat-sen, and Emilio Aguinaldo.
During the Russo-Japanese War, annexation of Korea and Siberian Intervention, the Imperial Japanese Army made use of the Kokuryūkai network for espionage, sabotage and assassination. They organized Manchurian guerrillas against the Russians from the Chinese warlords and bandit chieftains in the region, the most important being Marshal Chang Tso-lin. The Black Dragons waged a very successful psychological warfare campaign in conjunction with the Japanese military, spreading disinformation and propaganda throughout the region. They also acted as interpreters for the Japanese army.
The Kokuryūkai assisted the Japanese spy, Colonel Motojiro Akashi.
Akashi, who was not directly a member of the Black Dragons, ran
successful operations in China, Manchuria, Siberia and established
contacts throughout the Muslim world. These contacts in Central Asia were maintained through World War II. The Black Dragons also formed close contact and even alliances with Buddhist sects throughout Asia.
During the 1920s and 1930s, the Kokuryūkai evolved into more
of a mainstream political organization, and publicly attacked liberal
and leftist thought. Although it never had more than several dozen
members at any one time during this period, the close ties of its
membership to leading members of the government, military and powerful
business leaders gave it a power and influence far greater than most
other ultranationalist groups.
Initially directed only against Russia, in the 1930s, the Kokuryūkai expanded its activities around the world, and stationed agents in such diverse places as Ethiopia, Turkey, Morocco, throughout southeast Asia and South America, as well as Europe and the United States.

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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Fri May 08, 2009 3:39 pm


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Re: Military Articles

Post by durante on Fri May 08, 2009 5:23 pm

MILITARY PHONETIC ALPHABET
Reprinted from BULLSHEETS Issue 23.
A: Alpha
B: Bravo
C: Charlie
D: Delta
E: Echo
F: Foxtrot
G: Golf
H: Hotel
I: India
J: Juliet
K: Kilo
L: Lima
M: Mike
N: November
O: Oscar
P: Papa
Q: Quebec
R: Romeo
S: Sierra
T: Tango
U: Uniform
V: Victor
W: Whiskey
X: X-Ray
Y: Yankee
Z: Zulu

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Re: Military Articles

Post by D-MAG on Thu Jun 18, 2009 4:20 pm

asik juga baca cerita perang surabaya ... nice info gan

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Re: Military Articles

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